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Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed,
Pearl of the Orient Sea , our Eden lost,
With gladness I give you my Life, sad and repressed;
And were it more brilliant, more fresh and at its best,
I would still give it to you for your welfare at most.

On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight,
Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy,
The place does not matter: cypress laurel, lily white,
Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site,
It is the same if asked by home and Country.

I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show
And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night;
If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow,
Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so,
And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light!

My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent,
My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain,
Were to see you, gem of the sea of the Orient,
Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high plane
Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without stain.

My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire,
Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from thee;
Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may acquire;
To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire,
And in your mystic land to sleep through eternity!

If over my tomb some day, you would see blow,
A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses,
Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so,
And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow,
Warmth of your breath, a whiff of your tenderness.

Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry,
Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light,
In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh,
And should a bird descend on my cross and alight,
Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site.

Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize
And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky;
Let a friend shed tears over my early demise;
And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on high,
Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.

Pray thee for all the hapless who have died,
For all those who unequalled torments have undergone;
For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried;
For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were shied,
And pray too that you may see your own redemption.

And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry
And only the dead to vigil there are left alone,
Don't disturb their repose, don't disturb the mystery:
If you hear the sounds of cittern or psaltery,
It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone.

And when my grave by all is no more remembered,
With neither cross nor stone to mark its place,
Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered
And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored,
Let them turn to dust to cover your earthly space.

Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me:
Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep;
Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be:
Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep,
Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep.

My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine,
Dear Philippines , to my last goodbye, oh, harken
There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine,
I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen
Where faith does not kill and where God alone does reign.

Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me,
Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed;
Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day;
Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my way;
Farewell, to all I love. To die is to rest.


Sa Aking mga Kabata

Kapagka ang baya’y sadyang umiibig
Sa langit salitang kaloob ng langit
Sanlang kalayaan nasa ring masapi

Katulad ng ibong nasa himpapawid
Pagka’t ang salita’y isang kahatulan
Sa bayan, sa nayo't mga kaharian

At ang isang tao’y katulad, kabagay
Ng alin mang likha noong kalayaan.
Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salita
Mahigit sa hayop at malansang isda

Kaya ang marapat pagyamanin kusa
Na tulad sa inang tunay na nagpala
Ang wikang Tagalog tulad din sa Latin,

Sa Ingles, Kastila, at salitang anghel,
Sapagkat ang Poong maalam tumingin
Ang siyang naggagawad, nagbibigay sa atin.
Ang salita nati’y tulad din sa iba

Na may alfabeto at sariling letra,
Na kaya nawala’y dinatnan ng sigwa
Ang lunday sa lawa noong dakong una.


Education Gives Luster to Motherland

Wise education, vital breath
Inspires an enchanting virtue;
She puts the Country in the lofty seat
Of endless glory, of dazzling glow,
And just as the gentle aura's puff
Do brighten the perfumed flower's hue:
So education with a wise, guiding hand,
A benefactress, exalts the human band.

Man's placid repose and earthly life
To education he dedicates
Because of her, art and science are born
Man; and as from the high mount above
The pure rivulet flows, undulates,
So education beyond measure
Gives the Country tranquility secure.

Where wise education raises a throne
Sprightly youth are invigorated,
Who with firm stand error they subdue
And with noble ideas are exalted;
It breaks immortality's neck,

Contemptible crime before it is halted:
It humbles barbarous nations
And it makes of savages champions.
And like the spring that nourishes
The plants, the bushes of the meads,

She goes on spilling her placid wealth,
And with kind eagerness she constantly feeds,
The river banks through which she slips,
And to beautiful nature all she concedes,
So whoever procures education wise
Until the height of honor may rise.

From her lips the waters crystalline
Gush forth without end, of divine virtue,
And prudent doctrines of her faith
The forces weak of evil subdue,
That break apart like the whitish waves
That lash upon the motionless shoreline:
And to climb the heavenly ways the people
Do learn with her noble example.

In the wretched human beings' breast
The living flame of good she lights
The hands of criminal fierce she ties,
And fill the faithful hearts with delights,
Which seeks her secrets beneficent
And in the love for the good her breast she incites,
And it's th' education noble and pure
Of human life the balsam sure.

And like a rock that rises with pride
In the middle of the turbulent waves
When hurricane and fierce Notus roar
She disregards their fury and raves,
That weary of the horror great
So frightened calmly off they stave;
Such is one by wise education steered
He holds the Country's reins unconquered.
His achievements on sapphires are engraved;
The Country pays him a thousand honors;
For in the noble breasts of her sons
Virtue transplanted luxuriant flow'rs;
And in the love of good e'er disposed
Will see the lords and governors
The noble people with loyal venture
Christian education always procure.

And like the golden sun of the morn
Whose rays resplendent shedding gold,
And like fair aurora of gold and red
She overspreads her colors bold;
Such true education proudly gives
The pleasure of virtue to young and old
And she enlightens out Motherland dear
As she offers endless glow and luster.


Hymn to Labor

For the Motherland in war,
For the Motherland in peace,
Will the Filipino keep watch,
He will live until life will cease!


Now the East is glowing with light,
Go! To the field to till the land,
For the labour of man sustains
Fam'ly, home and Motherland.
Hard the land may turn to be,
Scorching the rays of the sun above...
For the country, wife and children
All will be easy to our love.



Go to work with spirits high,
For the wife keeps home faithfully,
Inculcates love in her children
For virtue, knowledge and country.
When the evening brings repose,
On returning joy awaits you,
And if fate is adverse, the wife,
Shall know the task to continue.



Hail! Hail! Praise to labour,
Of the country wealth and vigor!
For it brow serene's exalted,
It's her blood, life, and ardor.
If some youth would show his love
Labor his faith will sustain :
Only a man who struggles and works
Will his offspring know to maintain.



Teach, us ye the laborious work
To pursue your footsteps we wish,
For tomorrow when country calls us
We may be able your task to finish.
And on seeing us the elders will say :
"Look, they're worthy 'f their sires of yore!"
Incense does not honor the dead
As does a son with glory and valor.


Sculptures Made by Rizal

Title: Triumph of death over life

Material: Clay

Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 1890 in Brussels


Title: Triumph of science over death

Material: Clay

Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 1890 in Brussels


Title: Bust of Father Jose Guerrico

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894


Title: Oyang Dapitana

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893 - 1894


Title: Model head of a Dapitan girl

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan


Title: Sacred heart of Jesus

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Ateneo de Manila in 1875 - 1877


Title: Sacred heart of Jesus

Material: Terra Cotta

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894


Title: Composite statuette (nude lady lying down)

Material: Terra Cotta

Remarks: Molded in Brussels in 1890


Title: Mother's revenge

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1894


Title: Josephine Bracken (medallion)

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1895 - 1896


Title: Dr. Francisco Mercado (bust)

Material: Wood

Remarks: Life-size. Made Calamaba in 1887 - 1888


Title: Prometheus bound

Material: Clay

Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 18909 in Brussels


Title: Bust of Felix Pardo de Tavera


Remarks: Made in Paris


Title: Image of Virgin Mary

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Ateneo de Manila


Title: Wild boar

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan


Title: Orate Frantes (let us pray brethren)

Material: Wax

Remarks: Illustrated in Alejandro's La Senda Del Sacrificio


Title: San Antonio de Padua

Material: Clay



Title: Bust of Dr. Ricardo Carnicero

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1892 - 1893


Title: St. Paul the Hermit

Material: Clay

Remarks: Given as a gift to Fr. Pablo Pastells by Rizal in Dapitan in 1893


Title: Bust of Gen. Blanco

Material: Ivory

Remarks: Made in Dapitan


Title: Heads of 3 Beckette Girls

Material: Bas Relief, Clay

Remarks: Made in London, 1888


Title: Josephine's Head

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan


Title: Two gate columns (depicting busts)

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Dapitan when the water service was completed in 1895


Title: Parting view of Manila

Material: Pencil

Remarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882


Title: Bust of Augustus Ceasar

Material: Clay

Remarks: Sent from London to Dr. Blumentritt in 1888


Title: Bust of Julius Ceasar

Material: Clay

Remarks: Sent from London in December 1888


Title: A (Filipina) girl doll

Material: Wood



Title: A marionette in a form of a clown

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 - 1895


Title: A gay Franciscan Friar beside a wine barrel

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893


Title: Biscuit mold

Material: Wood

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893


Title: Wooden platters

Material: Wood

Remarks: Dapitan, 1894 - 1896


Title: Three wooden tops of different sizes

Material: Wood

Remarks: Dapitan 1894


Title: Allegoric medal - The Centenary of the Real Society of the Friends of the Country

Material: Wax

Remarks: Retana


Title: Bust of an intern at Hospital de Sta. Cruz

Material: Clay

Remarks: Barcelona, 1885


Title: Two statuettes. A maiden and a beggar

Material: Terra Cotta

Remarks: Sent to Blumentritt from Paris in September 1889


Title: Bust of Juan Sitges

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan


Title: Bust of "El Friale al Regreso"

Material: Wood



Title: A bowl of a pipe representing a girl's head

Material: Wood

Remarks: Dapitan


Title: Josephine Sleeping

Material: Plaster

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1895 - 1896


Title: Bust of Gov. Carnicero and his wife

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1895


Title: Public faucets representing a lion's head

Material: Terra Cotta

Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 - 1895


Title: Bust of his father

Material: Clay

Remarks: Made in Calamba, 1881


Title: Head of Egyptian (candle holder)

Material: Plaster

Remarks: Made in Hong Kong in 1892


Title: Bust of Mirabeau

Material: Terra Cotta

Remarks: Made in Barcelona, intended for Valentin Ventura


Title: The wounded gladiator

Material: Clay

Remarks: Started in Madrid in 1884 at Academia de San Fernando


Title: Bust Presented in the Solon of Paris

Material: Clay

Remarks: Accepted by the Solon in 1889




On February 15, 1889, the first issue of La Solidaridad came out and its editorial expressed its aim:


Our aspirations are modest, very modest. Our program, aside from being simple, is clear: to combat reaction, to stop all retrogressive steps, to extol and adopt liberal ideas, to defend progress; in a word, to be a propagandist, above all, of democratic ideas in order to make these supreme in all nations here and across the seas.


The aims, therefore, of La Solidaridad are described as to collect, to gather, libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry.


We shall also discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner.


With regard to the Philippines, since she needs the most help, not being represented in the Cortes, we shall pay particular attention to the defense of her democratic rights, the accomplishment of which is our patriotic duty.


That nation of eight million souls should not, must not be the exclusive preserve of theocracy and traditionalism.


The contributors of the La Solidaridad were mostly Filipinos, such as

• Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel)

• Dr. Jose Rizal (Laon Laan)

• Mariano Ponce (Naning, Kalipulo, Tigbalang)

• Antonio Luna (Taga Ilog)

• Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomapa)

• Dr. Pedro Paterno

• Antonio Ma. Regidor

• Isabelo delos Reyes

• Eduardo de Lete

• Jose Alejandrino


Some friends of the Propaganda Movement also contributed, notably Professor Blumentritt ( Austrian ethnologist ) and Dr. Morayta ( Spanish Historian, university professor and statesman ).


In the last issue of La Solidaridad (November 15, 1895), M.H. del Pilar wrote his farewell editorial saying :


We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery.




The desire to form a purely Filipino organization was fulfilled with the establishment in Barcelona on December 13, 1888 if La Solidaridad. This organization was a sort of rival of Morayta's Madrid group although the two organizations joined together in a petition addressed to the Minister of the Colonies asking for representation in the Cortes, abolition of censorship of the press, and prohibition of the practice of deporting citizens merely through administrative orders.


The president of La Solidaridad was Rizal's cousin, Galicano Apacible. Among the other officers were Graciano Lopez-Jaena, vice-president, and Mariano Ponce, treasurer. Rizal, in London at the time, was named Honorary President. Unfortunately, Apacible could not hold the wrangling reformists together. It took the prestige of Rizal and the political wisdom of del Pilar to unite the Filipinos in Spain and to coordinate their efforts.


But finally, in February 15, 1889, the Filipino propagandists were able to get together behind a new publication which they called La Solidaridad, and which for its more than five years of its existence became the principal organ of the propaganda movement. It was founded on February 15, 1889 and existed up to November 15, 1895. Its first editor was Graciano Lopez-Jaena but he was soon succeeded by Marcelo H. del Pilar. La Solidaridad was a political propaganda paper with a liberal, reformist orientation dedicated to the task of fighting reaction in all its forms.


Certainly an important factor limiting the influence of the propagandists was the fact that they wrote in Spanish, a language virtually unknown to the masses. Furthermore, censorship seriously limited the inflow of such reading matter and made possession of it very risky.


But despite all the foregoing, the influence of the Propaganda on the revolution cannot be discounted. True, La Solidaridad itself, Rizal's novels, and other propaganda material had limited circulation, but these reached the local ilustrados who in most instances came to lead the revolutionary forces in their provinces. The fund-raising efforts of local committees and masonic lodges and the clandestine attempts to distribute these materials involved more individuals in the campaign for reforms. The very attempts of the government to stop the entry of La Solidaridad and prevent its distribution highlighted the lack of freedoms that the propagandists were condemning.


If readership was small, seepage of information to other groups certainly occurred. And because what the propagandists wrote were accurate reflections of reality, a feeling of empathy developed wherever news of their work was heard. The articulation of their own feelings of oppression heightened the ferment of the people and herein lay the continuity between reformism and revolution despite their diametrically opposed means and goals.